Piping & Instrumentation Diagram
A piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is a picture of the piping, instruments, and controls for equipment in the process industry. It shows the control data, startup and shutdown procedures, safety information, regulatory requirements, and operational details. The diagram illustrates how the branches, instrumentation, reducers, and valves fit and work together to meet the needs of a particular process.
Example P&ID diagram
Although many pieces of critical equipment may contain the information from a P&ID in the details of its asset records, it can be very useful to tag individual components as well. The schematic of the P&ID contains a wide range of symbols that correspond to individual parts. By tagging parts to match the P&ID, a process company can organize unique collections of pumps and values easily, assemble and disassemble a process in a structured way, and record data such as specifications and materials for quick access when needed.
Database for Continuous Improvement
According to AICHE, the information in a P&ID is really just like a relational database of objects put together in a logical manner.
As a result, the P&ID is not only a one-time tool to be consulted at the beginning or end of a process, but something that should evolve over time. As operations technicians work with the processes within a facility, they will discover ways to improve the system or see potential problems within the process.
In addition, a process related to production may need to be altered in order to address production or capacity changes. The P&ID can help provide the information on how to build out or reduce the process to meet current needs.
Foundation for Future Audits
Many companies will be required to conduct a process safety management audit or a hazard review from time to time, which requires accurate and current data. The P&IDs, along with the tagging data, can serve as an important resource in which to conduct those periodic audits and evaluations.